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Despite the fact that I’ve seen some really impactful primate related research lately, I’ve completely neglected updating Primatology.net with it. I can’t believe it has been almost three months since I’ve posted there! I should really resume posting there. Actually, I was considering putting up this following blog post over there, since it has to do with differences in neuroanatomy of the primate brain… but because these comparative studies are in the context of identifying specific architectural differences in the human brain related to language, I think posting it here is more fitting.

If you’re a reader of Neurophilosophy, you may have an idea of what research I’m referring too, the new Nature Neuroscience paper from James Rilling and team. Before I jump into this paper, “The evolution of the arcuate fasciculus revealed with comparative DTI,” please let me share another recent paper that gives some introduction about what I’m gonna talk about.

See earlier this month, Current Biology published a paper, “Communicative Signaling Activates ‘Broca’s’ Homolog in Chimpanzees,” where researchers not only confirmed that the Broca’s area as an important area of the human brain for language comprehension, but also chimpanzees have similar activity in the homologous area of their brains when communicative signals are produced or heard. The Broca’s area has long been thought to be one of the specialized functional areas of the brain for language comprehension. In fact was discovered almost 150 years ago by a physician named Pierre Paul Broca, who conducted an autopsy of patient with a speech deficit. Broca was able to determine the patient had a syphilitic lesion in the left cerebral hemisphere and identified this area as his namesake.

If you’ve heard anything about Broca’s area, it larger in the left hemisphere of the brain. Comparing activity levels between the two hemisphere, during language-related tasks, have shown the left hemisphere Broca’s area is more active. That’s due to the lateralization of the brain, which I’m sure you’ve heard of.

Anyways, the results of this study have important implications in figuring out the functional and structural differences of the human and chimpanzee brain. Why? Well, for starters, the linguistic abilities of humans have been thought to be unique to us for a while. This is a really big misconception because research on signing apes and other communicating animals, have begun to show us that we’re not alone in our abilities to symbolize information and exchange it by way of complex sound and gesture.

In order to investigate the differences of the activity between Broca’s areas in humans and related structure in chimpanzees, Taglialatela et al., put three chimpanzee subjects in PET and fMRI machines and stimulated to vocalize by putting treats just out of their reach. They then recorded the activity of the subjects would vocalize in frustration. They were able to see the very same the neuroanatomical structures associated with the production of communicative behaviors in humans, fire in chimpanzees.

Now, of course that doesn’t mean chimpanzees are gonna be reciting Shakespeare anytime soon. This leads me to the first paper I mentioned today, the one from Rilling and crew. Rilling et al., did a comparative anatomical study on the structure of arcuate fasciculus, a large white matter tract, in humans, chimpanzees and macaques. The arcuate fasciculus functions as a linker between Broca’s area and another language associated area of the brain, Wernicke’s area. The researchers used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), a type of noninvasive medical imaging that’s a lot like MRI but it compares and contrasts the local characteristics of water diffusion within tissues.

While the arcuate fasiculus of the rhesus macaque, the chimpanzee, and the human linked up to the frontal cortex — including with Broca’s area, it was observed that the human arcuate fasiculus is much larger. It more spreads deep into the middle temporal lobe, leaving the classical Wernicke’s area. In chimps, the arcuate fasciculus made very superficial connections to the temporal cortex regions homologous to Wernicke’s area. Macaques showed a much lower extend of this integration. Rilling commented,

“We know from previous functional imaging studies that the middle temporal lobe is involved with analyzing the meanings of words. In humans, it seems the brain not only evolved larger language regions but also a network of fibers to connect those regions, which supports humans’ superior language capabilities.”

This following diagram was published in Rilling et al.’s paper and illustrates their results:

A Diagram of the arcuate fasciculus of Humans, Chimps, and Macaques

So from these two papers, the evolution of specialized language areas maybe active in both chimpanzee and human brains but as the human brain diverged from other primate counterparts, major re-wiring at the arcuate fasciculus accompanied the massive expansion of brain size. Ultimately the area that is associated with understanding word meaning, Wernicke’s area, has been strongly connected with Broca’s area.

    Rilling, J.K., Glasser, M.F., Preuss, T.M., Ma, X., Zhao, T., Hu, X., Behrens, T.E. (2008). The evolution of the arcuate fasciculus revealed with comparative DTI. Nature Neuroscience DOI: 10.1038/nn2072
    TAGLIALATELA, J., RUSSELL, J., SCHAEFFER, J., HOPKINS, W. (2008). Communicative Signaling Activates ‘Broca’s’ Homolog in Chimpanzees. Current Biology, 18(5), 343-348. DOI: 10.1016/j.cub.2008.01.049
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